NIST certifies a new encryption standard based on a competition. This competition has multiple rounds where a list of candidates is created, then narrowed based on rounds of public comment and a board of experts who eliminate slower or less safe solutions. It also released their list of round-2 algorithms for Asymmetric and Hash functions that will replace RSA, Diffie-Hellman, or Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, and SHA2 or SHA3.
Now we talk about each of the candidates for asymmetric algorithms, which are used in establishing a secure connection between a client and server. Today, asymmetric handshakes are slow and asymmetric encryption is not used for doing anything but passing a secret value between a client and server. Once the shared secret value is passed, the connection switches to a much faster symmetric cipher like AES or ChaCha.
Quantum computers will transform the way current computer machines work and will open a completely new paradigm of computation. By exploiting quantum phenomena, these computers will be able to solve problems that are currently intractable even for the most powerful supercomputers.
Since 1982, when Richard Feyman formulated the idea of a quantum computer, a lot of progress has been made. However, we are not yet at the commercial application of such computing systems. Currently, several research groups and also some companies such as IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Alibaba and Google are very active in this domain and are in the race for achieving ‘quantum supremacy’, when quantum computers outperform classical ones. On top of that, I believe that quantum computers will be on the market like accelerator technologies, just like GPUs and FPGAs currently are.
Quantum computers promise to be a revolutionary technology because their elementary building blocks, qubits, can hold more information than the binary, 0-or-1 bits of classical computers. But to control this potential, hardware must be developed that can access, measure and manipulate individual quantum states.
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Engineering and Applied Science have now demonstrated a new hardware platform based on isolated electron spins in a two-dimensional material. The electrons are trapped by defects in sheets of hexagonal boron nitride, a one-atom-thick semiconductor material, and the researchers were able to optically detect the system’s quantum states.
The global quantum cryptography market is expected to get bigger from USD 101 million in 2018 to USD 506 million by 2023, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 37.9% during the forecast period.
Major heightening factors for the market include the growing incidents of cyber-attacks in the era of digitalization, increasing cybersecurity funding, rising demand of next-generation security solutions for cloud and IoT technologies, and evolving next-generation wireless network technologies. However, lack of expertise and high implementation cost could restrain the market growth.
Quantum physics sets the laws that dominate the universe at the very small scale. The ability to harness quantum phenomena will hopefully allow us to build machines like quantum computers, which are predicted to perform certain calculations much faster than conventional computers.
One big problem with building quantum processors is that the ability to track and control quantum systems in real-time is an overwhelmingly fragile task: if we try to manipulate these systems carelessly, significant errors get introduced in the final result.